Thursday, July 26, 2007

Termo de Compromisso e Legitimidade

O Decreto federal nº 3.179, de 21 de setembro de 1999, que regulamentou o Capítulo das sanções administrativas previsto na Lei federal nº 9.605, de 12 de fevereiro de 1998 (Lei de Crimes Ambientais), trouxe, em seu art. 60 e §§, a figura do termo de compromisso.
Trata-se da possibilidade do Poder Público suspender a exigência da multa aplicada em decorrência de infração administrativa contra o meio ambiente, quando o infrator, mediante celebração de termo de compromisso para cessar ou corrigir os danos ambientais.
Não confundir o termo de que trata esse decreto do Termo de Ajustamento de Conduta, celebrado, em sede de Ação Civil Pública, entre aquele que cometeu danos ao meio ambiente e o Ministério Público.
No termo do Decreto em tela, o infrator tem que apresentar ao órgão que aplicou a multa um projeto técnico para reparação do dano (§1º); o órgão poderá dispensar a apresentação do projeto, caso considere-o desnecessário (§2º).
Se o infrator cumprir integralmente o que se comprometeu, o órgão ambiental reduzirá o valor da multa em 90% (§3º); órgão poderá ainda reduzir o valor da multa proporcionalmente ao que não for cumprido pelo infrator, seja por motivo a que deu causa ou por decisão do próprio órgão ambiental (§4º).
Até aqui, nada que possa suscitar maiores polêmicas. O que eu gostaria de discutir aqui é quanto à legitimidade para celebração desse termo, ou seja, considerando-se que o valor arrecadado das multas ambientais vai para um fundo difuso (federal, estadual ou municipal, a depender de quem aplicou a sanção), i.e. de todos e de ninguém em particular, tem o órgão ambiental (leia-se o agente público investido no cargo de dirigente) legítimo interesse de agir? (Não é objeto dessa discussão a questão processual ou administrativa da legitimidade; isso requereria um estudo mais aprofundado.)
Será que o simples fato de uma lei (ou melhor, um decreto) ter conferido poder ao órgão ambiental para reduzir o valor de uma multa ambiental em até 90% confere a esse ente legitimidade (do ponto de vista da ética ambiental) para dispor livremente de recursos de um fundo difuso, cujos objetivos são a proteção de um bem indisponível?
Uns vão achar que não veem maiores problemas, pois estamos acostumados a ver tantos e maiores poderes nas mãos de um agente público; outros, com certeza, vão achar que a multa ambiental trata-se de bem ambiental difuso em potencial, ao qual somente a coletividade pode decidir como dispor.
Eu prefiro ficar com o bom senso: algumas multas de valores mais elevados não deveriam mesmo ficar ao critério de um único agente; colocar essa decisão nas mãos de coletividade, por outro lado, requereria um processo demasiadamente trabalhoso. A melhor solução, na minha opinião, seria então que o conselho de meio ambiente (federal, estadual ou municipal, a depender da hierarquia do ente que aplicou a multa) decidisse se e em quantos % a multa seria reduzida. Presumindo que todo conselho de meio ambiente seja formado por representantes da sociedade, de preferência paritário, dar-se-ía, assim, maior legitimidade popular à decisão.
Essa, aliás, é uma solução que deve ser aplicada a tantos outros casos de concentração de poder nas mãos de um único agente público, que normalmente representa os interesses de um partido ou do Chefe do Poder Executivo, enquanto se esvazia os poderes do órgãos colegiados, verdadeiros (em tese) representantes da coletividade.

14 Comments:

At 11:18 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Acredito que o aspecto mais interessante do TC seja a liquidez do título, sem que, em caso de descumprimento do empreendedor, não haja maiores discussões acerca do mérito da aplicação das penalidades.
João Vidal

 
At 1:35 PM, Blogger Ambiental Urbano said...

Com certeza João. Alguns advogados de infratores até se recusam a celebrar esse Termo, pois acham que ao se comprometerem, estariam "confessando" a prática da infração e até mesmo de um suposto crime ambiental.

 
At 2:55 PM, Anonymous Jackson Santos said...

Aderimos ao texto do colega. Agente público, infelizmente, não fica restrito à legalidade do ato a ser praticado, pois, enquanto ele é concursado os seus superiores exercem cargos (de confiança) de indicação político-partidária. Assim, o decreto acaba sendo mais um instrumento de coação nas mãos de governantes, ávidos por apoio ou para destruir adversários nas disputas eleitoreiras, ja que os órgãos fiscalizadores das atividades ambientais, competentes para a autuação, são governamentais.

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